Pengolahan dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Kimia serta Kualitas Beras

Sulistyo Prabowo

Abstract


Composition and nature of paddy and its parts depend on varieties, environmental
and its processing manner. To become the rice, paddy experiences various treatment of post
harvest handling including cropping, pre-drying, draining, depository, hulling and milling.
This review is aim to look the effect of post harvest treatment and processing of rice to its
physical, chemical properties, and quality. Improper handling can change color of rice,
improving respiration and cause the quality degradation. Draining of rice can degrade the
enzyme activity which is responsible to damage the rice during storage such as amylase,
protease and lipase. The way of draining can have an effect on texture and rice color.
Improper temperature and way of draining can cause the broken caryopsis so that will
degrade the quantity of rice and improve the broken rice percentage, and this matter cause
the degradation of quality of and economic value. Dehulling have the influence to chemical
composition of rice like fat, mineral, thiamine, phosphate and pigment which is concentrate
at external layer of seed. The outside layer of rice which is lost during hulling represents the
all important shares in determining composition of nutrition. Vitamin content, especially
thiamine decreases during storage. Though total content of protein and amylose do not
experience of the change, but the protein solubility tends to decrease. Quality of cooking
and flavor of rice are also influenced by duration of storage. As long as time of storage,
volume expansion and water absorption will increase. Stickiness of rice also will decrease
as well as the aroma.


Keywords


rice, processing, quality, chemical-physical properties

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