Chris Asanti


This study aims at investigating the gender identity formation of some Indonesian women EFL teachers as they had experiences in advancing their study abroad. The study adopted a qualitative methodology within a feminist framework. The data were generated from some women who had been teaching English in Indonesia for at least two years prior to coming to another country to further their education. Through self-completion questionnaires and focus group interviews, the participants shared their lived-experiences and their adjustments as they were exposed to different cultural movements transnationally, between Indonesia and another country. How these women EFL teachers construct their gender identity during their transnational movement and how English actually influences these processes is the focus of the study. The findings reveal how the processes of gender identity construction were formed through governmental policy and socio-cultural values in the society. The findings also show how for these women EFL teachers their professional milieu was a site of contestation for women to promote their status in the society and gender equality. Finally the study highlights that English language is viewed as a benefit to elevate women’s social status as it facilitated their socialization in professional and educational contexts when they furthered their study in another country. Drawing on the findings, further research is suggested around the issue of gender identity construction of men EFL teachers in order to get more comprehensive picture.

Keywords: gender identity, women EFL teachers, English language 

Full Text:



Alsup, Janet. 2006. Teacher Identity Discourses: Negotiating Personal and Professional Spaces. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , Inc.

Bolton, S., & Muzio, D. 2008. “The Paradoxical Processes of Feminization in the Professions: the Case of Established, Aspiring and Semi-Professions.” Work, Employment and Society, 22(2), pp. 281−299.

Borch, Rosslyn Von Der. 2008. “Straddling Worlds: Indonesian Migrant Domestic Workers in Singapore.” In M. Ford & P. Lyn (Eds.), Women and Work in Indonesia (pp. 195−214). London: Routledge.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2012. “Persentase Penduduk Berumur 15 tahun Keatas menurut Daerah Tempat Tinggal, Jenis Kelamin, dan Jenjang Pendidikan tertinggi yang Ditamatkan, 2009−2011.” [Online] (Retrieved 28 February 2013).

Bryman, Alan. 2012. Social Research Methods (4th Edition). United States: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, Rebecca, & Wasco, Sharon. 2000. “Feminist Approaches to Social Science: Epistemological and Methodological Tenets.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(6), pp. 773−791.

Code, Lorraine. 1993. “Taking Subjectivity Into Account.” In L. Alcoff & E. Potter (Eds.), Feminist Epistemologies (pp. 15−48). Great Britain: Routledge.

Cohen, Louis, Manion, Lawrence, & Morrison, Keith. 2011. Research Methods in Education (7th Edition). Oxon: Routledge.

Creswell, John W. 2013. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (3rd ed.). USA: Sage Publications.

de Beauvoir, Simone. 2011. The Second Sex. USA: Vintage Books.

Denzin, Norman K. & Lincoln, Yvonna S. 2011. “Introduction: the Discipline and Practice of Qualitaive Research.” In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (4th ed), pp. 1−19. USA: Sage Publications.

Fonow, Mary Margaret & Cook, Judith A. 1991a. “Back To the Future: A Look at the Second Wave of Feminist Epistemology And Methodology.” In M. M. Fonow & J. A. Cook (Eds.), Beyond Methodology: Feminist Scholarship as Lived Research (pp. 1−20). USA: Indiana University Press.

_______. 1991b. “Back To the Future: A Look at the Second Wave of Feminist Epistemology And Methodology.” In M. M. Fonow & J. A. Cook (Eds.), Beyond Methodology: Feminist Scholarship as Lived Research. USA: Indiana university Press.

Ford, Michele & Parker, Lyn. 2008. “Introduction: Thinking about Indonesian Women and Work.” In M. Ford & L. Parker (Eds.), Women and Work in Indonesia (pp. 1−15). London: Routledge.

Foucault, Michel. 1986. “Of Other Spaces.” Diacritics, 16(1), pp. 22−27.

Gardiner, Judith. 2002. Masculinity Studies & Feminist Theory.

Gee, James Paul. 2012. “Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses.” [Online]

Hall, Stuart. 2011. “The Work of Representation.” In S. Hall (Ed.), Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (pp. 13−64). Great Britain: Ashford Colour Press.

Harris, Alice Kessler. 2004. “Gender and Work: Possibilities for a Global, Historical Overview.” In B. G. Smith (Ed.), Women's History: In Global Perspective (Vol. 1, pp. 145−194). USA: University of Illionis Press.

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy. 2012. “Feminist Research: Exploring, Interrogating, and Transforming the Interconnections of Epistemology, Methodology, and Method.” In S. N. Hesse-Biber (Ed.), Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis (2nd ed., pp. 2−26). Thousand Oak, California: Sage Publications.

Hoffman, Eva. 1989. Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language. New York: Dutton.

Holmes, Janet. 2006. Gendered Talk at Work: Constructing Gender Identity Through Workplace Discourse: Blackwell Publishing

Idrus, Nurul Ilmi. 2008. “Makkunrai Passimokolo': Bugis Migrant Women Workers in Malaysia”. In M. Ford & P. Lyn (Eds.), Women and Work in Indonesia (Vol. , pp. 155−172). London: Routledge.

Ingham, Xylia. 2005. Career Women in Indonesia: Obstacles Faced, and Prospects for Change. [Online]

Kouritzin, Sandra. 2000. “Immigrant Mothers Redefine Access to ESL Classes: Contradiction and Ambivalence.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 21(1), pp. 14−32.

Lauder, Allan. 2008. “The Status and Function of English in Indonesia: A Review of Key Factors.” Makara Seri Sosial Humaniora, 12(1), p. 9.

Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth. 2003. “Morals, Harmony, and National Identity: ‘Companionate Feminism’ in Colonial Indonesia in the 1930s.” Journal of Women's History, 14(4), pp. 38−58.

Maynard, Mary. 1994. “Methods, Practice and Epistemology: The Debate about Feminism and Research.” In M. Maynard & J. Purvis (Eds.), Researching Women’s Lives from a Feminist Perspective (pp. 10−26). Great Britain: Burgess Science Press.

Mertens, Donna M. 2005. Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods (2nd ed.). USA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Nilan, Pam, & Utari, Prahastiwi. 2008. “Meanings of Work for Female Media and Communication Workers.” In M. Ford & P. Lyn (Eds.), Women and Work in Indonesia (pp. 136−154). London: Routledge.

Norton, Bonny. 2000. Identity and Language Learning: Gender, Ethnicity and Educational Change.

Pavlenko, Aneta. 2001a. “How am I to Become a Woman in an American Vein?: Transformations of Gender Performance in Second Language Learning.” In A. Blackledge, A. Pavlenko, I. Piller & M. Teutsch-Dwyer (Eds.), Language, Power and Social Process (LPSP): Multilingualism, Second Language Learning, and Gender (pp. 134−174). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Pavlenko, Aneta. 2001b. “In the World of the Tradition, I Was Unimagined: Negotiation of Identities in Cross-Cultural Autobiographies.” International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(3), pp. 317−344.

Phan, Le Ha. 2011. “Fighting for the Role of the Nation State in Knowledge Mobilization and Educational Research: An Autoethnography of a Mobile Vietnamese Scholar.” In T. Fenwick & L. Farrell (Eds.), Knowledge Mobilisation and Educational Research: Politics, Languages, and Responsibilities (pp. 100−112). London: Routledge.

Roosseno, Toeti Heraty. 2000. “Foreword.” In M. O. Gardiner & C. Bianpoen (Eds.), Indonesian Women: The Journey Continues (pp. vii−xi). Canberra: Goanna Print Pty Ltd.

Soja, Edward W. 1996. Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Singapore: Blackwell Publishing.

Warriner, Doris. 2004. “The Days Now is Very Hard for My Family: The Negotiation and Construction of Gendered Work Identities Among Newly Arrived Women Refugees.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 3(4), pp. 279−294.

Weatherall, Ann. 2002. Gender, Language and Discourse. USA: Routledge.

Weedon, Chris. 1997. Feminist Practice & Poststructuralist Theory. USA: Blackwell Publishers.

Woodward, Kath. 2004. “Questions of identity.” In K. Woodward (Ed.), Questioning Identity: Gender, Class, Ethnicity (2nd Edition) (pp. 6−41). USA: Open University.

Zacharias, Nugrahenny T. 2003. “Survey of Tertiary Teachers’ Beliefs about English Language Teaching in Indonesia.” Institute for English Language Education, Assumption University of Thailand. Thailand. [Online]


Copyright (c) 2017 Chris Asanti

 Creative Commons License 

CaLLs site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
and managed by Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Mulawarman

CaLLs accredited Rank 5 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (Number 30/E/KPT/2018, October 31, 2018). Valid from Volume 3 Number 1 (2017) until Volume 7 Number 1 (2021).

Editorial Address

Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Mulawarman
Jalan Pulau Flores Nomor 1 Kota Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur − Indonesia 75112
Telepon: (0541) 734582

p-ISSN 2460-674X 
e-ISSN 2549-7707


Journal Index

           Crossref  OneSearch   PKP Index Logo   PKP Index Search