Peran Stres Kerja Terhadap Niat Berhenti Bekerja di Moderasi Oleh Tekanan Psikologis Akibat Covid-19

Dhea Rizky Ardini, Endang Parahyanti

Abstract


Berdasarkan studi terbaru, tekanan psikologis akibat covid-19 memiliki pengaruh terhadap niat untuk berhenti bekerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat peran tekanan psikologis akibat covid-19 terhadap stress kerja dan niat berhenti bekerja pada ibu bekerja. Studi kuantitatif dilaksanakan di masa pandemi covid-19 dengan menyebarkan kuesioner daring dengan teknik accidental sampling. Alat ukur yang digunakan telah melalui uji coba terlebih dahulu, yaitu Skala Niat Berhenti Bekerja (a= 0.82), Skala Stres Kerja (a= 0.79), dan Skala CORPD (a= 0.75). Hasil analisis statistik menggunakan Model 1 PROCESS Hayes menunjukkan efek interkasi antara stress kerja dan tekanan psikologis akibat covid-19 terhadap niat berhenti bekerja tidak signifikan b=0.11, t(203)= 0.75, p > 0.01, Cl95%[-0.18, 0.40]. Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa variabel tekanan psikologis akibat covid-19 tidak menunjukkan efek moderasi yang signifikan, sehingga tidak memperkuat hubungan antara stress kerja dengan keinginan berhenti bekerja.


Based on a recent study, psychological stress due to COVID-19 has an influence on turnover intention. This study aims to look at the role of covid-19 psychological distress on work stress and turnover intention for working mothers. The quantitative study was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic by distributing online questionnaires using the accidental sampling technique. The measuring scale used have been tested beforehand on a pilot study, consist of Turnover Intention Scale (a= 0.82), Work Stress Scale (a= 0.79), and the CORPD Scale (a= 0.75). The results of the analysis using the Hayes PROCESS Model 1 shows that the interaction effect between work stress and covid-19 psychological distress on turnover intention was not significant (b=0.11, t(203)= 0.75, p > 0.01, Cl95%[-0.18, 0.40]). Thus, this can be concluded that the covid-19 psychological distress does not show a significant moderating effect, so it does not strengthen the relationship between work stress and the turnover intention.


Keywords


Covid-19; Psychological Distress; Turnover Intention; Work Stress

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andrew, A., Cattan, S., Dias, M. C., Farquharson, C., Kraftman, L., Krutikova, S., … Sevilla, A. (2020). How are mothers and fathers balancing work and family under lockdown ? https://doi.org/10.1920/BN.IFS.2020.BN0290

Azwar, S. (2012). Penyusunan skala psikologi edisi 2 (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Belete, A. (2018). Turnover intention influencing factors of employees : An empirical work review journal of entrepreneurship & organization management. J Entrepren Organiz Manag, 7(3), 3–7. https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-026X.1000253

Camman, C., Jenkins, G. D., & Nadler, D. A. (1975). The michigan assessment of organizations questionnaire. In D. A. Nadler (Ed.), Michigan Organizational Assessment Package: Progress Report II. Retrieved from http://docshare01.docshare.tips/files/23906/239068612.pdf

Charlton, E. (2020). COVID-19 lockdown hits working mothers harder than fathers. Retrieved from World Economic Forum website: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/06/covid19-lockdown-working-mothers-gender-gap/

Encarnacion, J. (2020). Rapid gender assessment surveys on the impacts of Covid-19: Guidance Document. Retrieved from https://data.unwomen.org/sites/default/files/documents/Publications/COVID19survey_Guidance.pdf

Feng, L., Dong, Z., Yan, R., Wu, X., Zhang, L., Ma, J., & Zeng, Y. (2020). Psychological distress in the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic : Preliminary development of an assessment scale. Psychiatry Research, 291, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113202

Ferdian, A., Luturlean, B. S., Zhafira, K. D., & Izumi, N. K. (2020). The impact of work stress on turnover intention in Indonesia: Is there a mediation from employee ’ job satisfaction ? 5(1), 31–40. https://doi.org/10.35609/jmmr.2020.5.1(3)

Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L.-A. B. (2012). Research Methods For The Behavioral Sciences 4th edition (4th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Haar, J. M., Russo, M., Sune, A., & Ollier-Malaterre, A. (2019). Outcomes of work-life balance on job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and mental health: A study across seven cultures. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.08.010

Hamouche, S. (2020). COVID-19 and employees’ mental health: Stressors, moderators and agenda for organizational actions. Emerald Open Research, (2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.35241/emeraldopenres.13550.1

Hassan, R. (2014). Factors influencing turnover intention among technical employees in information technology organization: A case of XYZ (M) SDN. BHD. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 3(9), 120–137. Retrieved from https://www.ijac.org.uk/images/frontImages/gallery/Vol._3_No._9/10._120-137.pdf

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://library.lol/main/D273C8C71C1AE4B604733B48DDFE3EC2

Hinton, P. R., Brownlow, C., McMurray, I., & Cozens, B. (2014). SPSS Explained (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://library.lol/main/8EE593A27665ADF6982314535794DD50

Hutt, R. (2020). The coronavirus crisis may hit women harder than men. Retrieved from World Economic Forum website: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/the-coronavirus-fallout-may-be-worse-for-women-than-men-heres-why/

Irshad, M., Khattak, S. A., Hassan, M. M., Majeed, M., & Bashir, S. (2020). How perceived threat of Covid-19 causes turnover intention among Pakistani nurses : A moderation and mediation analysis. Mental Health Nursing, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12775

Jaharuddin, N. S., & Zainol, L. N. (2019). The impact of work-life balance on job enggagement and turnover intention. The South East Asian Journal of Management, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.21002/seam.v13i1.10912

Jha, S. (2009). Determinants of employee turnover intentions: A review. Management Today, 9(2), 26–33. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2442689

Kumar, R. R. (2011). Turn over issues in the textile industry in Ethiopia : A case of ArbaMinch textile company. African Journal of Marketing Management, 3(2), 32–44. Retrieved from https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMM/article-full-text-pdf/05F3E874505

Labrague, L. J., & Santos, J. D. L. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 , psychological distress , work satisfaction and turnover intention among front line nurses. Research Square, 1–18. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-35366/v1

Lilly, J. D., Duffy, J. A., & Virick, M. (2006). A gender-sensitive study of McClelland ’ s needs , stress , and turnover intent with work-family conflict. Women in Management Review, 21(8), 662–680. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420610712045

Liu, Z., Han, B., Jiang, R., Huang, Y., Ma, C., Wen, J., … Ma, Y. (2020). Mental Health Status of Doctors and Nurses During COVID-19 Epidemic in China. The Lancet, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3551329

Losada-baltar, A., Jiménez-gonzalo, L., Gallego-alberto, L., Pedroso chaparro, M. S., Fernandes-pires, J., & Márquez-gonzález, M. (2020). “ We Are Staying at Home .” Association of Self-perceptions of Aging , Personal and Family Resources , and Loneliness With Psychological Distress During the Lock-Down Period of COVID-19. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 20(20), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa048

Lu, Y., Hu, X., Huang, X., Zhuang, X., & Guo, P. (2017). The relationship between job satisfaction , work stress , work – family conflict , and turnover intention among physicians in Guangdong , China : a cross-sectional study. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014894

Lu, Y., Hu, X. M., Huang, X. L., Zhuang, X. D., Guo, P., Feng, L. F., … Hao, Y. T. (2017). The relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work-family conflict, and turnover intention among physicians in Guangdong, China: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 7(5). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014894

Mo, Y., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Lang, Q., Liao, C., Wang, N., … Huang, H. (2020). Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. J Nurs Manag., 28, 1002–1009. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13014

Mosadeghrad, A. M. (2013). Occupational stress and turnover intention: Implications for nursing management. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1(2), 169–176. https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2013.30

Nemati, M., Ebrahimi, B., & Nemati, F. (2020). Assessment of Iranian nurses ’ knowledge and anxiety toward covid-19 during the current outbreak in Iran. Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5812/archcid.102848

Perlow, L. A., Hadley, C. N., & Eun, E. (2017, August). Stop the meeting madness: How to free up time for meaningful work. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/07/stop-the-meeting-madness

Powell, G. N. (2020). Work – family lockdown : Implications for a post-pandemic research agenda. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-05-2020-0148

Putro, T. A. D., Ajeng, N., & Qomariyah, O. (2020). Stres kerja, keterlibatan kerja, dan intensi turnover pada generasi milenial. Psikostudia Jurnal Psikologi, 9(2), 154. https://doi.org/10.30872/psikostudia.v9i2.3837

Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic : implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 19–21. https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213

Satici, B., Gocet-Tekin, E., Deniz, M. E., & Satici, S. A. (2020). Adaptation of the fear of covid-19 scale: Its association with psychological distress and life satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, (1–10). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00294-0

Shukla, A., & Srivastava, R. (2016). Development of short questionnaire to measure an extended set of role expectation conflict, coworker support and work-life balance : The new job stress scale. Cogent Business & Management, 3(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2015.1134034

Smith, C. B. (2020). Emotional well-being and coping during covid-19. Retrieved September 17, 2020, from UCSF Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences website: https://psychiatry.ucsf.edu

Sousa, V. D., & Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: A clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 17(2), 268–274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01434.x

Suifan, T. S., Abdallah, A. B., & Diab, H. (2016). The influence of work life balance on turnover intention in private hospitals: The mediating role of work life conflict. European Journal of Business and Management, 8(20), 126–139. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312188465_The_Influence_of_Work_Life_Balance_on_Turnover_Intention_in_Private_Hospitals_The_Mediating_Role_of_Work_Life_Conflict

Tews, M. J., Michel, J. W., & Ellingson, J. E. (2013). The impact of coworker support on employee turnover in the hospitality industry. Group and Organization Management, 38(5), 630–653. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601113503039

Tziner, A., Rabenu, E., Radomski, R., & Belkin, A. (2015). Work stress and turnover intentions among hospital physicians: The mediating role of burnout and work satisfaction. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 31, 207–213. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpto.2015.05.001

Useche, S. A., Montoro, L., Alonsoa, F., & Pastor, J. C. (2019). Psychosocial work factors, job stress and strain at the wheel: Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) in Professional Drivers. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1531). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01531

Uttley, J. (2019). Power Analysis, sample size, and assessment of statistical assumptions—Improving the evidential value of lighting research. LEUKOS-Journal of Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 15(2–3), 143–162. https://doi.org/10.1080/15502724.2018.1533851

Wongboonsin, K., Dejprasertsri, P., Krabuanrat, T., Roongrerngsuke, S., Srivannaboon, S., & Phiromswad, P. (2018). Sustaining employees through co-worker and supervisor support: Evidence from Thailand. Asian Journal of Business and Accounting, 11(2), 187–214. https://doi.org/10.22452/ajba.vol11no2.6




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30872/psikostudia.v10i2.5928

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Psikostudia : Jurnal Psikologi

 

Department of Psychology
Faculty of Social and Political Siences
Jl. Muara Muntai Kampus Gn. Kelua Samarinda 75411
Phone: +62 813 35350368
E-Mail: psikostudia@fisip.unmul.ac.id